Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Challenges, problems and conflicts that may occur in teams Assignment The WritePass Journal

Challenges, problems and conflicts that may occur in teams Assignment Introduction Challenges, problems and conflicts that may occur in teams Assignment ) assert that emerging reliance on organized research is a weakness that has the potential to slow the progress research. Others have widely utilized the challenges to the teamwork concept over the course of the past generation to produce quick and successful project results (Eddy, Tannenbaum and Mathieu 2013). Personal experience has shown that by working with a team and by being a vital part of the effort to find miniscule details in several literary research projects, the team potential for effective decision making is markedly increased (Ibid).   During the challenge to identify specific passages that related to research in the texts,   team efforts aided during the process of wading through a wide range of literature. The experience and camaraderie increased positive feelings, which in turn served to further enhance the research results (Ibid).   Hackman (2011) identifies the clear challenge that the concept of   shared responsibility created between the collaboration group and the team enables a better decision making model. The very first challenge to the concept of teamwork is for management to weigh the effort of team formation versus the streamlined and much less complex individual application (Ibid). However, with only one person on the task, the likelihood of delay or detriment increases (Eddy, Tannenbaum and Mathieu 2013). This is a very effective argument for teams: redundancy. Teamwork has been found to increase the potential for success substantially (Murase, Doty, Wax, Dechurch, and Contractor 2012).   As technology evolves and more resources became available, teams have evolved past the simple construct into a much more complex creation that are commonly able to meet challenges that exist at the start up stage. However, a question that must be asked is if the effort of forming a team offset by the potential knowledge gained from the experience (Ibid)? If the decision can be better   accomplished   alone, the effort of creating a team is not worth the result. Organisational theory is utilized in the effort to streamline business and predict human behaviour that occurs in the organisational setting (Dyer,Dyer, and Dyer 2007).   Teamwork has become a growing challenge in this field as the strength of the potential for gain has been recognized in the business world (Ibid). The Contingency Theory argues that there is no best method to the creation of a team, but each situation is unique and must be fit to the individual application (Decostanza, Dirosa, Rogers, Slaughter, Estrada, and O. 2012). This is a primary challenge that must be addressed in every team operation process. Others cite the process of teamwork decision process as cumbersome and a burden to individual potential (Zingone, Franks, Guirguis, George, Howard-Thompson, and Heidel, R. 2010).   The challenge to the   teamwork decision making concept is that it has the potential to be as positive or detrimental as the members allow.   Personal experience has illustrated how te am decisions and course correction was essential due to the fact that the work simply could not be done by one or two people and benefited from the teams input (Ibid). Further, there were many points of view that required a varied field of knowledge, making team decisions essential.   Finally, the deadline was very short increasing the pressure, which the team was able to minimize (Decostanza et al 2012). It took a team decision that served to guide the project past the difficult points in order to achieving the target goal (Ibid).   A primary challenge from the outset of any team effort is morale and energy (Ibid). Another challenge to an effective team decision making is the creation of a cross functional working environment that will be conducive to supporting the entirety of the effort (Tohidi 2011).   The process of team process requires that the members know how to function and provide incentive (Ibid). Personal experience has demonstrated that   especially as a project begins to develop, the pressure creates issues that cause members of the team to leave, or splinter from the original.   This form of teamwork friction can turn a small issue into a major problem (Beatty et al 2012).   Challenges in this area include disputes over leadership positions which in turn hobbles the entire decision making process and serves to skew the research (Ibid). Beatty et al (2012) Identifies four particular challenges that must be addressed in order to enable a team decision making process to be successful: a) Appropriate formation b) Members are accountable for both individual and team work c) Assignment promotes team development d) Timely communication In each case, careful consideration before implementation has the potential to increase effectiveness consequently reducing issues (Ibid). The creation and implementation of an effective team is essential in the decision making process and is faced with many challenges as the group comes together to find a solution (Dyer et al 2007).   A primary hurdle facing a team is the initial assessment of which person will be best suited to which specific task within the scope of the project (Ibid). As Dyer et al (2007) Illustrates, the role determination at the outset can have a tremendous impact on the subsequent performance of the entire team.   Personal experience has demonstrated the fact that the right leader can make or break a team project from the very beginning (Ibid). Further, primary challenge that the leader will mitigate is the identification of the proper employees to become part of the team decision making experience (Ibid).   Weak leadership in a team setting often leads to many voices, which in turn have a variety of directions and takes away from the capacity to make effective decisions (Ibid).   Leaders in a team provide resources, rewards and management that are effective focusing and maintaining the project goals (Schultz, Wilson, and Hess 2010).   Lacking any one of these elements will quickly become a challenge to the entire organization.   Teams have a real potential to start off well, and then flounder when the perceived leader does not provide the pieces necessary to progress as a group (Ibid).   If there is a method but no practical application for that method, the entire group is left at a standstill. Team leadership is responsible for guiding the members to produce the best effort for the benefit of the entire project (Ibid).   The style of leadership in a teamwork setting is important, as it must fit with the temperament of the project.   A successful team decision is due to the capacity of the leader and team to work together in a positive, upbeat environment (Sarrafzadeh and Williamson 2012).   Leaders that have instilled a sense of doom and gloom have seldom evoked the same level of skill from the teams (Ibid).   Management leadership that is worth their pay assists t development of the teamwork effort while integrating the individual goals with that of the group. Atkinson (2013) defines the role of organisational culture as reflecting the overriding assumption regarding the method of work and the limits of what is and is not acceptable. Principals are often at the heart of dissension in the teamwork environment if there is a lack of structure and coherence during the formation period (Ibid).   Personal experience has illustrated that different team approaches can cause substantial strife. With no clear structure the negative discussion took up vital research time (Ibid). The dynamic of teamwork issues will vary according to the size of the team, the bigger the effort the more complex the application (Goldman, B. and Shapiro 2012).   Research has shown that when working in larger groups, the difficulties are multiplied and the need for coordination is only enhanced as the group grows in scope (Ibid).   Conversely, personal experience with a small team of three or four individuals has the capacity to be as effective as much larger, less c ommunicative teams (Atkinson 2013). Once the team has begun to work issues such as Groupthink must be avoided in order to progress (Sikorski, Johnson, and Ruscher 2012).   As the establishment of routine sets in during the team environment, there is the threat of following the leader (Ibid).   There is the potential for team members   to follow the group, even if they had an opposite opinion (Ibid). This has clear potential to set the entire effort back as it is necessary to go back and deal with the issue.   Further, this mentality lacks creativity and innovative depth that can doom a team’s effort from the very beginning (Ibid).   Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, and Cohen (2012) identify three modern challenges to the operation of an effective team: a) Dynamic composition of the members b) The distance and technology that are involved. c) Empowerment and delayering Personal experience has illustrated that there are significant challenges in each of these areas, particularly cross cultural challenges as research partners are often on completely different sides of the planet (Sweet and Michaelsen 2012). Recent projects commonly have had to include translation programs and uncommon times to meet. In each case the culture and area of my partner serves to influence the project (Ibid). Emerging technology has made it possible to extend the resources which can be a significant enhancement to the team potential (Ibid). Others argue the extreme increase in the cultural diversity of team makeup creates more issues than benefits and adversely impacts the underlying integrity of the study in question (Sweet and Michaelsen 2012).   When an international team first comes together, the very basic elements of language and cultural understanding are very critical points that must be considered as the team is given assignments.   A lack of adequate understan ding of the social dynamics has the potential to not only hobble and slow a team’s efforts, but in very many cases completely derail the process (Ibid). An emerging challenge to any team decision making model is the continuous upgrade and application of technology (Buchanan, and Huczynski 2010). With computers, tablets and mobile computers becoming a vital tool, the mix of the forms of technology can lead to a significant issue. Personal experience with this dilemma came when during the attempted transfer from an Ipad to a research partners PC.   This quickly became an issue as it was necessary to obtain the correct application to make the one program work with the other. Further, this same concept translates into the manner in which the entire team communication effort is managed (Child, 2005).   The method and manner of organization throughout the team process has the potential to create a myriad of issues. The issue of finding emails and means of transferring data from my platforms to the groups is a continuous challenge which creates a situation in which the group cannot fully share scheduling information and updates due to t he different nature of the programs used (Ibid).   Leadership must account for and adapt to the many layered technological nature of the modern work place (Ibid). Conclusion The concept of team decision making in organisational theory is credited with being the next evolution in business. With the evidence presented in the study illustrating many of the potential benefits, there were areas of concern that could serve to diminish many of the expected returns of implementing a team based network. The primary expectation for a team project is the increase in resources and depth, which in turn adds to the capacity to make more informed decisions.   Issues surrounding the team   itself ranging from organisation, leadership, technology and personal cohesiveness all serve to come together to impact the overall effectiveness of the concept.   There is clear evidence to support the assertion that a team can produce better decisions, yet, this is dependent on the unique factors that surround the formation, implementation and result of the team experience. If any one area of the teamwork process is lacking, so too is the final result. Beginning with the determination of needing to form a team, choosing leadership and structure, to communication and goal sharing the team decision making process is a highly complex, delicate instrument that has the potential to make better decisions than past models. In every case, the team has the potential to exceed expectations or fail miserably, which in turn will be determined by the members themselves.   In the end, a team is individuals that share a common vision and the will to make it happen. References Atkinson, P. 2013. Corporate Culture.  Philip Atkinson Consulting, 1 (2), pp. 1-10. [Accessed: 3 Dec 2013]. Beatty, S., Kelley, K., Metzger, A., Bellebaum, K. and Mcauley, J. 2009. Team-based learning in therapeutics workshop sessions.  American journal of pharmaceutical education, 73 (6). Child, J. 2005.  Organization. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.. Decostanza, A., Dirosa, G., Rogers, S., Slaughter, A., Estrada, A. and X, O. 2012. Researching teams: Nothings going to change our world.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5 (1), pp. 3639. Doina, R., Mirela, S. and Constantin, R.. The Organizational Culture and the Factors of its Formation .ANALELE UNIVERSIT\uA\cTII DIN ORADEA, p. 561. Eddy, E., TANNENBAUM, S. and MATHIEU, J. 2013. Helping Teams to Help Themselves.  Personnel Psychology. Goldman, B. and Shapiro, D. 2012.  The psychology of negotiations in the 21st century workplace. New York: Routledge. Hackman, J. 2011.  Collaborative intelligence. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Hirst, G. 2009. Effects of membership change on open discussion and team performance: The moderating role of team tenure.  European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18 (2), pp. 231249. Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. 2013.  Organizational behaviour. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Johns, G. and Saks, A. 2011.  MGMT20001 Organisational behaviour. Sydney: Pearson Choices. Murase, T., Doty, D., Wax, A., Dechurch, L. and Contractor, N. 2012. Teams are changing: Time to â€Å"think networks†.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5 (1), pp. 4144. Sarrafzadeh, M. and Williamson, K. 2012. Multicultural, Virtual Work Places: Opportunities and Challenges for LIS Educato.  International Journal of Information Science and Management (IJISM), 10 (1), pp. 89102. Schultz, J., Wilson, J. and Hess, K. 2010. Team-based classroom pedagogy reframed: The student perspective.  American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), 3 (7). Sikorski, E., Johnson, T. and Ruscher, P. 2012. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course.Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21 (6), pp. 641651. Sweet, M. and Michaelsen, L. 2012.  Team-based learning in the social sciences and humanities. Sterling, Va.: Stylus Pub.. Tannenbaum, S., Mathieu, J., Salas, E. and Cohen, D. 2012. Teams are changing: are research and practice evolving fast enough?.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5 (1), pp. 224. Tohidi, H. 2011. Teamwork productivity effectiveness in an organization base on rewards, leadership, training, goals, wage, size, motivation, and measurement and information technology. Islamic Azad University of South Tehran, 3(1) pp. 1137-1146 West, M. and Lyubovnikova, J. 2012. Real teams or pseudo teams? The changing landscape needs a better map.  Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5 (1), pp. 2528. Zingone, M., Franks, A., Guirguis, A., George, C., Howard-Thompson, A. and Heidel, R. 2010. Comparing team-based and mixed active-learning methods in an ambulatory care elective course.  American journal of pharmaceutical education, 74 (9).

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Ancient History Essay Example for Free

Ancient History Essay Ancient history (10) , Pompeii (4) company About StudyMoose Contact Careers Help Center Donate a Paper Legal Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Complaints New research has immensely impacted on our understanding of daily life in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. Experts in archaeology, science and other fields have revealed copious amounts of information about people, buildings and food found in the two cities prior to the eruption in 62 AD. Experts such as Estelle Lazer and Sarah Bisel have assisted in heightening our understanding of the daily life in Pompeii and Herculaneum. From 1986 Estelle Lazer worked on a sample of over 300 individuals who were represented by a collection of disarticulated bone. The techniques of forensic medicine and physical anthropology were used to determine sex, age-at-death, height, signs of disease and population affinities of the victims. The results indicated that almost equal numbers of males and females from all age groups did not manage to escape the town before it was destroyed. Sarah Bisel worked with the bone analysis of the skeletons of Herculaneum to determine and study the lifestyle differences between the social classes present within Herculaneum. She discovered many things about the people of Herculaneum such as the town was a genetically diverse society, children were often malnourished due to the lack of calcium in their teeth and the bodies had high levels of lead. This new information has majorly effected and broadened our understanding of daily life in Pompeii and Herculaneum. The evidence of food in the two towns and the study of these by experts such as Wilhelmina Jashemski and the team of principal researchers known as the Pompeii Food and Drink Project, further develop our knowledge of daily life in these famous towns of Campania. Jashemski’s project had the purpose of studying animal and plant remains in order to gain an understanding of the kinds of gardens in and around Pompeii as well as gathering information on the wine and oil industries of the area. By examining soil contours and carbonised plant remains, archaeologists have gained a more accurate picture of produce and ornamental gardens in Pompeii. The purpose of the Pompeii Food and Drink Project was to analyse the patterns of daily life in a non-invasive way to study the structures that are associated with food and drink. The Project has collected many ancient artefacts and information, and answered many questions about the food and drink storage, distribution, preparation, serving, and consumption in Ancient Pompeii. All these sources combine to give us a more acute knowledge of the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The buildings found in Pompeii and Herculaneum provide extensive information about the lifestyle of people living there. The House of Pompeii Project, started in 1977, had the focus of investigating and salvaging buildings which had been excavated in previous years but had not necessarily been recorded. The two houses that were particularly studied was the House of the Ancient Hunt and the House of the Coloured Capitals. The Project has not uncovered any new information, only recorded findings on certain housing which were either not properly recorded or completely ignored. The Insula of Menander Project had much the same aim as the House of Pompeii Project, in that they were redressing the deficiencies in earlier records. Their main focus, though, was the insula conducted under Amedeo Maiuri. The Project provided a detailed history of the insula showing that there had been frequent building changes over time and that there appeared to be a late appearance of shops and the addition of upper storeys in the last years of the city. The Pompeian Forum Project’s main objective was to produce more accurate plans of surviving remains by the use of architectural analysis to widen the understanding of contemporary urban problems. The traditional view that the Forum was a ‘builder’s yard’ after the 62 AD earthquake was disproved. There was also evidence found of a comprehensive earthquake plan for the Eastern side of the Forum. In Source A we can see how new research has amplified our knowledge of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Through research by Italy’s National Institute of Optics, it has been discovered that the famous ‘Pompeian red’ was a colour created from the mixture of yellow paint and the gases from Vesuvius. In conclusion, the impacts of new research and technologies have considerably expatiated our enlightenment of the daily life in Pompeii and Herculaneum. The many sources uncovered and analysed from these towns have been much more useful as a result of developing technology and research. In the years to come, technology will continue to develop, along with more information being discovered and this will result in more and more information being provided about the famous ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Ancient History. (2016, Oct 30). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Behavioural Finance in Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Behavioural Finance in Business - Essay Example Tapping telephone calls, monitoring computer and internet usage, and screening e-mails are some of the common employee surveillance practices. This paper will critically discuss the influence of workplace surveillance on managing people at work from the perspectives of both employers and employees. The paper will particularly focus on three relevant issues such as performance management, employee privacy, and use of information technology. Performance management Productive performance management is the ultimate goal of workplace surveillance programs. In order to effectively manage workplace or employee performance, it is necessary to measure employee performance levels frequently. Management professionals claim that surveys or other studies may not be an effective way to measure employees’ work performance and productivity. Furthermore, workplace surveillance is the only potential mechanism in today’s business environment as it is an impossible task for line managers a nd other executives to monitor each employee separately. Therefore, a vast majority of management experts strongly support the use of electronic surveillance techniques in the workplace. According to the 2007 Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey conducted by the American Management Association (AMA 2007), nearly 45% of business organizations monitor their employees’ computer, internet, and phone usage. The survey also indicates that a notable percent of employees were terminated for offensive language; excessive personal use of company properties; viewing, downloading, uploading offensive content; and breach of the firm’s confidential rules (ibid). These survey results support the top managements’ argument that workplace surveillance must be in operation to improve value chain efficiency and overall organizational productivity. From an employer’s perspective, the workplace surveillance system would put a moral check on employees and hence they may become more productive. In addition, if there is a workplace system in operation, employees would be conscious of future consequences in case of any workplace misconduct.  

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Health Care Challenges Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health Care Challenges Memo - Essay Example The advantage that comes with subnetting is that most data will be managed effectively and also the speed of the network will improve in folds. Most health care organizations have been able to implement networks into their communications systems as such information flow and exchange between departments. To enable they have various network infrastructures and configurations (Martina Ziefle, 2010). First is the data center that hosts the hospitals administrative and patient care operations. The most common infrastructures used in healthcare are integrated services Digital Network (ISDN) technology and communication satellite technology. The former enables the merging of separate networks into a single high speed communication infrastructure through digital transmission as well as switching. The networks can either be broadband or narrowband. The common configurations or protocols here are circuit switched work, packet switched network and cell switched networks. The latter consists of satellites, a system control center as well as getaways. The bandwidth of the satellite network infrastructure is wide and it is also secure (M artina Ziefle, 2010). Data that is being transmitted over the network and especially that which contains large files such as those needed for maintaining radiology films and other results that must be maintained and transferred are numerous. First off, the data may be delayed over the network and may even lead to the jamming of the network (Misra, Misra, & Woungang, 2010). This reduces the speed of the network and at its worse may lead to the closure of the network. This therefore makes subnetting efficient since such a problem will be taken care of. To allow the segregation of data there are a range of equipments that must be in place this includes: multiservice router, multilayer switch, optical multiservice platforms,

Friday, January 24, 2020

Assisted Reproductive Technology Essay -- Infertility Medicine Papers

Assisted Reproductive Technology The act of reproduction is vital in sustaining the existence of any living creature. In fact, anthropologist Dr. Helen Fisher cites in her book Anatomy of Love that "the most essential thing the human animal does is reproduce" (Rutter, 1996). It is survival of the species: reproduce or die out. In the human race, it is not a problem of extinction, but of conforming to social expectations. Fisher notes that men feel the pressure to "plant the seed" and women feel that motherhood is the sole factor of "femaleness", while others feel that it is just an issue of humanity's need to control nature (Rutter, 1996). Granted, these are the opinions of only a few individuals, yet the topic of procreation is obviously a very important issue between marriage partners. But what happens when one cannot reproduce? An estimated one out of every six couples in the United Sates has difficulty conceiving a child (Rogers, 1988). Fifty years ago, these infertile partners had only three options: continue t rying to have a baby through natural sexual intercourse, adopt a child, or simply remain barren. However, recent developments in reproductive technologies have created many alternative methods for conception. Assisted reproductive technologies caught on quickly, and in 1995 three million American couples sought procreative help (Rutter, 1996). Along with the emergence of any new technology comes ethical and legal issues which must be considered, especially in Christian settings. However, it is possible that assisted reproductive technologies can be a realistic and ethical option for infertile couples, without compromising the covenants of the faith community. Definitions In order to understand the issues t... ...496. Lockwood, M. (1985). (Ed). Moral dilemmas in modern medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nelson, J. B. (1973). Human medicine: ethical perspectives on new medical issues. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House. Neuberger, J. A. (1988, April 22). Tug of love troubles. Nursing Times, 22. Rogers, J. R. (Ed). (1988). Medical ethics-human choices. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press. Rutter, V. T. (1996, March-April). Who stole fertility? Psychology Today, pp. 46-49. Snyder, G. F. (1988). Tough choices. Elgin, IL: Brethren Press. Thomasma, D. C. & Kushman, T. (Eds). (1996). Birth to death. New York: Cambridge University Press. Weltman, J. J. (1997). Points to consider on the subject of surrogacy. [Online]. The American Surrogacy Center, Inc. Available: http://www.surrogacy.com/legals/articles/points.html (1997, October 23).

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Biomedical approach Essay

The Biomedical approach includes the administration of various pharmacological agents which can be utilized to treat various mental disorders. It is usually administered for short durations in combination with psychotherapy. It brings back to normal the various chemical substances that are present in the brain (neurotransmitters). When the neurotransmitter levels are normal, the effect of psychotherapy would be better. The biomedical approach can be utilized to treat various psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, OCD, depression, anxiety, etc (MINDD Foundation, 2008). The psychodynamic approach includes various theories that utilize the internal drives and forces that may be present in the individual (some of which may be unconscious), to ensure that the individual can undergo a psychological change and get to better control over several problems. It is effectively utilized in pain management. Psychodynamics is considered to be the interaction of the id, ego and the superego so as to satisfy ones needs (which play an important role in the development of the personality). The psychodynamic approach was developed by the followers of Sigmund Freud. This approach gives greater consideration to the unconscious motives that affect behavior, emotions and feelings. The behavior of adults is strongly affected by the childhood motives (Simply Psychology, 2009). The humanistic-existential approach concentrates on the motivations and the needs of the individual and is similar to the psychoanalytical theory. This therapy focuses greater on the free will of the individual rather than on obstructing human nature. This is one of the major differences that are present between humanistic-existential and psychoanalytical approach. It also tends to concentrate greater on solving the problem rather than the problem itself (University of Hawaii, 2008). Cognitive and behavior therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that involves determining and sorting out improper thoughts (that may be associated with depression), solving various problems and improving the problem-solving skills, and ensuring that people are able to engage in more enjoyable activities (that can ensure that the individual learns about potentially rewarding activities and performs them in the future) (University of Michigan, 2006). Reference Simply Psychology (2008). Psychodynamic Approach, Retrieved on May 29, 2009, from Web site: http://www. simplypsychology. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk/psychodynamic. html The MINDD Foundation (2008). The Biomedical Approach, Retrieved on May 29, 2009, from Web site: http://mindd. org/s/archives. php/48-Biomedical-Treatments. html The University of Hawaii (2008). The Biological Paradigm, Retrieved on May 29, 2009, from Web site: http://www2. hawaii. edu/~heiby/overheads_%20paradigms. html University of Michigan Depression Center (2006). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Retrieved on May 29, 2009, from Web site: http://www. med. umich. edu/depression/cbt. htm

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Essay on Government Actions to Prevent Economic Crises

Introduction At least for a while, the bear seems to have buried the bull. Wall Street doesn’t seem as shiny as it used to. The global economy has just recently come out of a deep recession. At a time like this, it is particularly relevant to examine the role of the State in overcoming economic crises. Although government intervention in the matters of a fair free-market is not entirely consistent with the doctrine of economic liberalism which has been today vindicated as a necessity in a free society, in practical terms, it is impossible for the government to be not involved in something so intrinsic to the over-all well being of its subjects. But what can the government do to get the country out of an economic slump? What many†¦show more content†¦According to Jonung (2009), the bank support was of crucial importance because it guaranteed the durability of the banking system by restoring confidence in the Swedish institutions. The Riksbank (Swedish central bank) ensured unlimited liquidity by effectively acting as a lender of last resort. The Swedish ministry of finance attacked the crisis with a twofold approach. Firstly, ‘Banks in trouble were asked to obtain capital from their shareholders,’ on failure of which, the banks would have been confiscated and brought under public control. This was a crucial part of the recovery package which pushed banks to the edge in their efforts in the battle for survival, thus minimizing the moral hazard problems. This is in sharp contrast to the towering moral hazard problems which the U.S. faces with the corporate bailouts in the automobile and financial industry. Secondly, the finance ministry created the ‘Bank Support Authorityâ €™ which supervised the process of splitting the assets of the major Swedish banks into a bad bank and a good bank and managed them according to their prospects. 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